Since the class was a lot like drinking from a fire-hose, I’ve agreed to post my class notes as an entry in this blog.  Disfrutelo.


Apocrypha – “Hidden Things”

Pseudepigrapha – “False Writings”


  1. Nothing scary about them
  2. Linguistic relationship to Apocalypse
  3. Difference between Apocryphal and Pseudepigraphal

 Hebrew Bible / NT Canon

  1. Hebrew Bible didn’t contain apocryphal books
  2. Not since Athanasius has there been an official NT canon different than the 27 we have today
  1. Publishing History of the Apocrypha
    1. Martin Luther was the first major edition to section off the Apoc (1534)
    2. King James 1611 contained the Apoc
    3. Not until the late 18th and early 19th c. was the Apoc excluded

Which texts contain Apocryphal books?

  1. Septuagint (contains Anagignoskomena [things that are read] which are: Tobit, Judith, Wisdom of Solomon, Wisdom of Jesus Sirach, Baruch, Epistle of Jeremy (in the Vulgate this is chapter 6 of Baruch), additions to Daniel (The Prayer of Azarias, Sosanna and Bel and the Dragon), additions to Esther, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, 3 Maccabees, 1 Esdras, Psalm 151, 4 Maccabees in the appendix)
  2. Codex Vaticanus (Esdrases, Judith, Tobit, Maccabees, Prayer of Manasseh, Wisdom, Baruch)
  3. Codex Sinaiticus (Shepherd of Hermas, Barnabas, Sirach, plus Cod. Vat.’s)
  4. Codes Alexandrinus (3 & 4 Maccabees, Epistle of Marcellinus, 1 & 2 Clement)


Which Canons include Apocryphal books?

  1. Refer to Lost Scriptures by Bart Ehrman

NT References to Apocrypha

Matt. 6.7 – Sirach 7.14; Matt. 23.37 – 2 Esdras 1:30; Lk. 6.31 – Tobit 4.15; Rom. 9.21 – Wisdom 15.7; Rom. 11.34 – Wisdom 9:13; 2 Cor. 9.7 – Sirach 35.9; Heb. 1.3 – Wisdom 7:26


References to Books either lost or non-canonical in the Bible

The Book of Jasher : Joshua 10:13 and 2 Samuel 1:18

The Book of the Wars of the Lord: Numbers 21:14

Several works of Solomon: 3,000 proverbs; 1,005 songs; and a manual on botany: 1 Kings 4:32

“The Book of Shemaiah the prophet, and of Iddo the Seer” : 2 Chr 12:14-15

The Covenant Code: Exodus 24:7

The Manner of the Kingdom: 1 Samuel 10:25

The Acts of Solomon: 1 Kings 11:41

The Annals of King David: 1Chronicles 27:24

The Book of Samuel the Seer: 1Chronicles 29:29

The Book of Nathan the Prophet: 1Chronicles 29:29

The Book of Gad the Seer: 1Chronicles 29:29

The History of Nathan the Prophet: 2Chronicles 9:29

The Prophecy of Ahijah: 2Chronicles 9:29

The Visions of Iddo the Seer: 2Chronicles 9:29

The Book of Shemaiah the Prophet: 2Chronicles 12:15

Iddo Genealogies: 2Chronicles 12:15

The Story of the Prophet Iddo: 2Chronicles 13:22

The Book of Jehu: 2Chronicles 20:34

The Acts of Uziah: 2Chronicles 26:22

The Vision of Isaiah: 2Chronicles 32:32

The Acts of the Kings of Israel: 2Chronicles 33:18

The Sayings of the Seers: 2Chronicles 33:19

The Laments for Josiah: 2Chronicles 35:25

The Chronicles of King Ahasuerus: Esther 2:23 and Esther 6:1

The Chronicles of the Kings of Media and Persia: Esther 10:2

References to Books either lost or non-canonical in the NT

The Book of Enoch is quoted in Jude (14–15) . Enoch is also quoted at 1 Peter 3:19-20, Jude 6, and 2 Peter 2:4.

The Book of Jubilees: Romans 2:29, 9:24, 4:13

The Assumption of Moses: Jude 9.

The Life of Adam and Eve: 2 Corinthians 11:14

Strangely enough, there are plenty more.  I’ve inserted some of this and a little more in an entry on Wikipedia called “Biblical Apocrypha.”  While Wikipedia is about the worst form of scholarship out there, I wanted this to reach more eyes than what my blog can.  And yes, I do believe that the article on Wikipedia is a misnomer; it should be call “Extra-Canonical Works in the Biblical Canon.”